mperature. Partial hydrogenation does not make them fully solid. Full hydrogenation  converts a liquid oil into a solid fat at room temperature.

Hydrogenated Fats:
A more technical explanation

Hydrogenated fats are oils that have been processed through a chemical hardening method to achieve increased plasticity (stiffness) of the liquid oils at room temperature. Partial hydrogenation (brush hydrogenation) hardens oils but does not make them fully solid. Full hydrogenation requires complete conversion of a liquid oil into a solid fat at room temperature.

Triglyceride
All fats are made up of triglycerides. A triglyceride is a chemical unit composed of the combination of one unit of
glyceride with three units of fatty acids. A typical fat or oil will be a physical mixture of many different types of
triglycerides.

Hydrogenated Fats and Oils
Hydrogenated fats are oils that have been processed through a chemical hardening method to achieve increased plasticity (stiffness) of the liquid oils at room temperature. Partial hydrogenation (brush hydrogenation) hardens oils but does not make them fully solid. Full hydrogenation requires complete conversion of a liquid oil into a solid fat at room temperature (72 F). A fully hydrogenated oil has natural saturated fats left intact and all the remaining mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids become converted from their fluid configuration to a full trans fat rigid configuration.

 

 

 

Hydrogenation Process
The hydrogenation process employs Quan quanquan

1. High heat

2. A metal catalyst such as nickel, zinc, copper, or other reactive metals

3. Hydrogen gas.

The metals are used to react with the hydrogen gas which is bubbled up through the mixture. The metals catalyze the hydrogen and carbon atoms and converts the fatty acids by flipping one of the attached hydrogen molecules and rotating it half the diameter of the carbon chain.

This effectively creates a new molecular shape resulting in a stiffer or more rigid material, hence the change from a liquid to a semi-solid or solid substance. This new shape stiffens with the hydrogenation process making the oil behave more like a saturated fat (such as coconut fat which is 92% saturation and solid at room temperature).

Trans fats are the result of this reaction.

Partial hydrogenation, or "brush hydrogenation" is a minimal conversion step which only offers a small degree of reaction by hydrogenation. Brush hydrogenation increases stability for volatile fatty acids like the omega 3 (alpha-linolenic) and omega 6 (linoleic) polyunsaturated oils. Most commercial salad dressing oils, such as soybean oil, have been brush hydrogenated.

Hydrogenation raises the melting point of the fat and retards rancidity. But as recent health studies have found other problems can ensue when consuming large amounts of trans fats from hydrogenated products.

Trans Fatty Acid
Trans fatty acids are synthetic saturated fats. They are generally man-made, however they can form naturally in cow's milk with up to 14% butter fat, and can also occur in vegetable fats (through hydrogenation). The hydrogen molecules attached at the center of the fatty acid carbon chain flips 180 degrees, which straightens the natural curve or kink in the typical cis-configured fat.

When converted, the cis-shape chemically alters to a trans configuration and hence is called a trans fat. Most margarine and vegetable shortening have been trans fat converted through full or partial hydrogenation process. Trans fats interfere with metabolic absorption efficiencies and tend to congregate at adipose tissue sites. They are difficult to excrete from the body and are a low quality energy source.

 

 

The above was excerpted and reprinted with permission from Spectrum Naturals, Inc. 1-707-778-8900

Send feedback, pose or answer questions about nutrition: Contact

The Right Fats vs. The Wrong Fats. Pill-Popping Nutrition.
Balanced Diet: What Is It? Osteoporosis: A series
AHA Herb-Seasoning Mixture Debunking the Calcium Crisis
Fatty Diets Equal Rotund, Unhealthy You. Cool, Clear Water.
About Nutrition Directory. Letters from Readers
Hydrogenated Fats: Technical Hydrogenated Fats
Fat is More Fattening RDA for Fats
The Bad-Guy Fats The Really Bad-Guy Fats
The Good-Guy Fats The Really Good-Guy Fats
The Skinny on Fats More Skinny on Fats
Truth in Labels on Fats? What about Vitamin C?
Beta-Carotene: You Need to Eat Your Veggies Book Reviews
Doubtful Nutrients for Vegans and Vegetarians Genetically Engineered Foods
Lactose Intolerence Do We Need Cow's Milk?
How to eat healthy for one, two, three or more. Lifestyles vs. Diseases
Hidden Animals in Foods Recommended Food Groups/Servings
Busy Cook: Cook healthy in two hours per week.
Weekly Tips for Living Lunchbox Notes Dating/Meeting for Singles

shop6.gif (3389 bytes)

profilelong175.gif (2797 bytes)

Beauty Happy Love Math/Science Fun for Kids Stay in Touch with Kids/Grandkids

SOLO for Singles | Singles Profiles | Shopping Place | CyberParent | DFW eMAG | Connections

Contact  
Copyright 1997-2006 CyberParent. All rights reserved.
Certain images: Copyright 1993-1997 T-Maker Company. All rights reserved.

The goal of CyberParent is to bring you true, correct, and up-to-date nutritional information that is not influenced by the financial considerations of advertising and advertisers. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors. They are not medical advice and do not necessarily express the position of CyberParent. Please consult your medical professional.

Thanks for stopping by CyberParent. Please bookmark and come back soon.